Fitness is as important for puppies as for adult dogs.
Puppies can benefit from fitness exercise by helping them coordinate their nervous system, have good body awareness, and mentally challenge them.
First be patient and have fun! Puppies are like kids in learning. It takes time to allow them to figure things out with repetition and treats. They will learn what you are asking with consistent action and rewarding when they do it correctly. Rewarding is a whole different topic that I will write on later or give some references. Have FUN! Puppies are about play. So play with them and bring out your inner child again.
Second be aware of their joint health. Puppies have growth plates on the end of their bones that allows them to grow tall and strong. Growth plates are soft areas at the end of long bones, like the femur and humerus, with rapidly dividing cells regulated by hormones that slows down at puberty. If those growth plates are injured while they are growing the dog is more at risk for arthritis later in life. What can you do? Allow your puppy to play at their own pace. DO NOT run long distance with your puppy unless you have a cart or sack to carry them when they get tired. Allow the puppy to run when they play at their pace so they can stop when tired. DO NOT jump with them. Allow them to play and jump at their own level so they can rest with fatigue. Gentle play is best until the growth plates close about 1-2 years depending on the size of the dog. Puppy culture has a great brochure with guidelines as to what activity to work with your puppy as they grow up.
Exercise fun with your puppy
Fitness exercises like elevated stand and step overs are great basics to start with your puppy. They begin to work on balance and it mentally challenges them so they are tired for you. As these exercises become part of their routine they will have a stronger body and foundation for play, work, or competition.
Mentally challenging a puppy is also part of a fitness program to help them work out problems. Freeze a kong with baby food flavors like chicken, turkey, pumpkin, and squash to give them when you have a project to work on. They can work on the frozen kong and it is a reward for being good while you work. As they manipulate the kong with their paws it will stretch out the joints and strengthen them up too.
GO have FUN with your puppy! Let us know what exercises they like best.